calculus


calculus
n.; pl. calculi
1) a stone: a hard pebble-like mass formed within the body, particularly in the gall bladder (see gallstone) or anywhere in the urinary tract (see cystolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, staghorn calculus). Calculi in the urinary tract are commonly composed of calcium oxalate and are usually visible on X-ray examination. Some of these stones cause pain if they cause obstruction and prevent urine flow in the ureter or kidney, or by direct irritation of the bladder. Stones passing down a duct (such as the ureter) cause severe colicky pain. Most stones pass spontaneously, but some need to be broken into smaller pieces, usually by extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the remainder by endosurgical techniques (see litholapaxy) or rarely by open surgery. Calculi may also occur in the ducts of the salivary glands.
2) a calcified deposit that forms on the surface of a tooth as it is covered with dental plaque. Supragingival calculus forms above the gingivae (gums), principally in relation to the openings of the salivary gland ducts. Subgingival calculus forms beneath the crest of the gingivae. Calculus hinders the cleaning of teeth and its presence contributes to gingivitis and periodontal disease.

The new mediacal dictionary. 2014.

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  • Calculus — Cal cu*lus, n.; pl. {Calculi}. [L, calculus. See {Calculate}, and {Calcule}.] 1. (Med.) Any solid concretion, formed in any part of the body, but most frequent in the organs that act as reservoirs, and in the passages connected with them; as,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • calculus — 1660s, from L. calculus reckoning, account, originally pebble used as a reckoning counter, dim. of calx (gen. calcis) limestone (see CHALK (Cf. chalk)). Modern mathematical sense is a shortening of differential calculus. Also used from 1732 to… …   Etymology dictionary

  • calculus — [kal′kyo͞o ləs, kal′kyələs] n. pl. calculi [kal′kyəlī΄] or calculuses [L: see CALCULATE] 1. any abnormal stony mass or deposit formed in the body, as in a kidney or gallbladder or on teeth: see TARTAR (sense 2) 2. Math. a) any system of… …   English World dictionary

  • Calcŭlus — (lat.), 1) Stein; 2) Stein im Bretspiel; 3) das kleinste Gewicht, ungefähr = 1/2 Ceratium; 4) Berechnung, s. Calcul; 5) die Stimme im Votiren; daher C. Minervae (eigentlich Ἀϑηνᾶς ψῆφος) der weiße Stein bei Stimmengleichheit im Areopag zu Athen,… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Calcŭlus — (lat.), Stein, z. B. zum Spiel, zu Abstimmungen (s. Kalkul), zum Rechnen etc.; daher Error in calculo, Rechnungsfehler. C Minervae, Stein der Minerva, d. h. die bei Stimmengleichheit zu jemandes gunsten den Ausschlag gebende Stimme, von dem… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Calculus — Calcŭlus (lat.), Stein, Rechenstein, Rechnung; error in calculo, Rechenfehler …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Calculus — Calculus, Stein, in der patholog. Anatomie Name verschiedener Concretionen, als Harn , Gallen , Gicht und Venenstein …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • calculus — ► NOUN (pl. calculi or calculuses) 1) the branch of mathematics concerned with finding derivatives and integrals of functions by methods based on the summation of infinitesimal differences. 2) Medicine a stone formed by deposition of minerals in… …   English terms dictionary

  • Calculus — This article is about the branch of mathematics. For other uses, see Calculus (disambiguation). Topics in Calculus Fundamental theorem Limits of functions Continuity Mean value theorem Differential calculus  Derivative Change of variables …   Wikipedia

  • calculus — /kal kyeuh leuhs/, n., pl. calculi / luy /, calculuses. 1. Math. a method of calculation, esp. one of several highly systematic methods of treating problems by a special system of algebraic notations, as differential or integral calculus. 2.… …   Universalium

  • Calculus — A stone, as in the urinary tract. Also, the calcium salt deposits on the teeth. The word calculus in Latin means a pebble. Pebbles were once used for counting, from which came the mathematical field of calculus. A urinary calculus is a pebble in… …   Medical dictionary